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Released: Friday, June 19, 2020
Expires: Wednesday, May 31, 2023

Direct Restorative Solutions for Black Triangles

By Jihyon Kim, DDS

Commercial Supporter: 3M

A variety of methods are used to eliminate “black triangles” (open gingival embrasures). Injection molding with warmed composite offers many advantages over legacy methods. This article will describe the injection molding protocol for eliminating black triangles. The protocol includes biofilm removal, contact management, anatomic matrices, injection molding with warmed composite, and simplified polishing steps.


  • Describe the injection molding steps for eliminating black triangles.
  • Discuss the benefits of warmed injection-molded composite versus hand-placed composite and other direct and indirect restoration protocols.
  • Describe polishing steps to assure esthetics and longevity of the composite materials.

About the Author

Jihyon Kim, DDS
Consultant for 3M
Private Practice, Bellevue and Tacoma, Washington


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